You could argue that the comma is used to create a natural break in the flow of a long sentence and to emphasize where the second clause begins, but not because they are independent clauses. On the other hand, if removing the phrase does nothing to the meaning of the sentence, and it still makes sense, then the phrase is non-restrictive and a comma should be used. A Comma before However It is common grammar mistake to use a comma before however when it is being used to merge two sentences into a compound sentence.For example: I hate potatoes, however, I like chips. include the author’s last name, followed by a comma and the underlined title of the work, which can be in shortened form. It is used to join two complete sentences into a single sentence, and it must be followed by a suitable connecting word. “who is a better painter than I” is correct because the “am” is understood. Examples: … the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Finance, and Health and Social Affairs ... Commas in pairs. Grammar Desk Reference, Cincinnati: Writer’s Digest Books, p. 207. A thousand splendid suns, authored by Khaled Hosseini, is a fantastic novel. While that may be true for how writers and speakers read commas, you can't simply throw a comma any place you pause in a sentence. ... there is no comma before the name?" How about this. Some people put the comma before the "and" while others leave it out, but it definitely does not go after. The exceptions include years, page numbers, and street addresses. The problem with sentence-ending participial phrases is that writers often add such a phrase as an afterthought, and they often omit a needed comma. 1991). We use commas while combining multiple phrases in one sentence or writing about different items in a list. In some uses of the CRON format there is also a seconds field at the beginning of the pattern. Commas before “including” in restrictive phrases. You can’t just stick on a phrase somewhere without paying attention to punctuation. In case you’re not up on the concepts of restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses, here’s a quick review so we’re all on the same page. Example: You may be required to bring many items, e.g., sleeping bags, pans, and warm clothing. The comma that I've used before and is called an Oxford comma and not all speakers feel it's necessary to include it, so that's a style choice as well. In past Grammar Girl episodes, I’ve talked about how to use the words “which” and “that” with restrictive and nonrestrictive elements. A widget comprising: A; B; C; and D. where A, B, C, and D are usually long phrases which recite different elements in the claim. An example is the “which” clause in this sentence: “The town, which lies thirty miles from the capital, is famous for its potato festival.” The “which” clause is surrounded by commas. Can anyone explain the difference? The only place in that sentence where commas are required is in the list at the end (running, jumping, and swimming). First, look at the words before but: I would go for a walk. 2005. Under pressure from the National Hig… It’s not extra information; it’s essential information. It can be easy to get confused about restrictive and nonrestrictive elements, so remember this: If it’s extra information, use extra commas. He … But you don’t need a comma when you’re simply listing two items. In a series (or list) of three or more items, you can use a comma before or, but this is a preference, not a rule. Grammar.com. Bonnie Mills has been a copyeditor since 1996. The Oxford comma reduces ambiguity in lists. "This would mean the speaker is telling about John to Tina (the friend). As with many comma related questions, the answer depends on whether the phrase in question is restrictive or non-restrictive. Is the comma after girl necessary? The more complicated truth is that it depends on context: if a sentence is very long, or it seems necessary to insert a comma before because in order to make the meaning of the sentence clear, then that construction is acceptable. Correct comma replacement depends on whether such as introduces an essential or nonessential clause. If removing the phrase would change the meaning of the sentence, then it is restrictive and a comma should not be used. When you don’t have two independent clauses, leave the comma out. You can think of a nonrestrictive clause as simply additional information” (1). Copyright © 2021 Macmillan Publishing Group, LLC. That’s no surprise, because commas often indicate slight breaks. I drove the car home as it was snowing. It’s not extra information; it’s essential to the sentence. In that case, the CRON expression is a string comprising 6 or 7 fields. There is a comma before the conjunction (but), and the nonessential comment (in the end) is set off with a pair of commas. Use a pair of commas in the middle of a sentence to set off clauses, phrases, and words that are not … You cannot do this with conjunctive adverbs (e.g., however, furthermore, consequently), but you … I’m going to say this again because it’s important: A pause in a sentence does not mean that’s where you use a comma. Here’s another example: “Everyone over 50 was fired, causing an uproar.” “Making me cry” and “causing an uproar” are acting as afterthoughts in these sentences, so both require a comma beforehand. Participial phrases can appear anywhere in a sentence, but today we’re focusing on those that come at the end. When do you put a comma before a participial phrase such as "making me cry"? "Lily made Panna Cotta, an Italian dessert", Yep, looks fine -- just make sure to add a period at the end :-). Lutz, Gary, and Diane Stevenson. This article was written by Bonnie Trenga, author of The Curious Case of the Misplaced Modifier, who blogs at sentencesleuth.blogspot.com, and read in the podcast by Mignon Fogarty, author of the New York Times bestseller, Grammar Girl’s Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing. Before we reveal which sentence needs a comma and which doesn’t, let’s go back to a term from the beginning of the show: participial phrase. Notice the difference in the following two sentences. There are more usages of a comma, for example, how adding or removing comma before and after a name changes the meaning of the sentence — In this Grammar.com article let us understand how to correctly use commas with names. In other words, it depends on how important the phrase is to the overall meaning of the sentence. The first version’s reveal in a Bloomberg article and video prompted a cease-and-desist letter from the California Department of Motor Vehicles, which accused Comma.ai of testing a self-driving car in the state without a license. – Casey Jul 27 '14 at 4:53. Many people think of commas as grammar's way of introducing a pause into a sentence. Commas almost always follow phrases at the beginning of sentences; use the comma to separate the phrase from the independent clause. Lutz, Gary, and Diane Stevenson. That comma is optional. "My wife Susan and I founded our company in 2012." Don’t use a comma before a prepositional phrase. Appositives act as synonyms for a … Personally, I would put a comma after In Quantum Physics: that clause is not critical to the meaning of the overall sentence; and I find it helps to pause there in order to understand the sentence quickly, i.e. ; Oxford commas are also known as serial or Harvard commas. Write to us your doubts and queries through comments. Subsequently, OpenPilot was packaged into a shippable device dubbed the Comma One, which again ran afoul of the authorities because of noncompliance with U.S. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. That’s the strict version of the rule. I remember a comma rule that clarifies if you would only have one wife who is Susan or multiple wives of which Susan is one, but can't remember. After all, most communication takes place in reports, emails, and instant messages. One can analyze the letter salutation “Dear John” as a noun phrase comprising a proper name and an adjective modifying it, functioning as a vocative, and therefore sandwiched between the real beginning of the letter’s first sentence and a following comma. Or better yet, drop the 'The' too. Like because, as can be used as a conjunction or as an adverb. Hope you liked the article. Do you put commas around "Susan?" https://www.grammar.com/the_correct_way_to_use_commas_with_names_and_titles. Girl, have you been to Japon? Sure? It is generally set to 'root'. eg He surprised her with an engagement ring. The final comma before and is not normally used in United Nations documents. Coordinating conjunctions also called as coordinators, join two independent clauses in order to construct a compound sentence. When a word or phrase forms an introduction … Is a comma necessary in a sentence like: ; Don’t place a comma before which when which is part of a prepositional phrase. If you listened to the podcast version of this article, you may have noticed that I the speaker paused slightly before the participial phrases. Main Takeaways: Place a comma before which when which precedes a nonrestrictive clause. “A restrictive clause is just part of a sentence that you can't get rid of because it specifically restricts some other part of the sentence” (1). I know it is when saying names, but what about girl or boy? People often get muddled about whether to place a comma before conjunctions like and, so, because, and or. Comma , The comma joins two or more ideas in a sentence or separates items in a series. If it’s added information, add a comma. It depends on how 'tightly coupled' the will phrase is to what precedes it. https://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/which-versus-that-0. The proper place for the comma is before the conjunction. You already saw the sentence “She is the lady making me cry.” Here, we don’t use a comma because we can’t delete the phrase “making me cry.” This phrase defines which particular lady we’re talking about. If a participial phrase comes at the end of a sentence, use a comma—unless the phrase is restrictive (3). "The correct way to use commas with names and titles." Check your text and writing for style, spelling and grammar problems everywhere on the web! We sold 1,270 … Make sure that the comma is placed before the coordinating conjunction. Quick & Dirty Tips™ and related trademarks appearing on this website are the property of Mignon Fogarty, Inc. and Macmillan Publishing Group, LLC. Fogarty, M. “Which Versus That,” Grammar Girl website. It should read 'The distinguished scientist Mr Stephen, of AKL University, will be addressing the crowd tomorrow.' Comma before as? We're doing our best to make sure our content is useful, accurate and safe.If by any chance you spot an inappropriate comment while navigating through our website please use this form to let us know, and we'll take care of it shortly. (Notice how I used it as an adverb in the preceding sentence.) Confusing. Today, we’re revisiting the concept of restrictive versus nonrestrictive elements. 6. We use commas while combining multiple phrases in one sentence or writing about different items in a list. When your sentence ends with a participial phrase, you need to decide if the phrase contains extra information or crucial information. Then it starts to look like three people founded the company: My wife, Susan, and me. She hated going to the dentist, and cried the whole way there. When “for” is used as a conjunction between two clauses (“for” is the F in FANBOYS) then you need a comma before it. There was a time when this sentence would be punctuated exactly this way. Do you know the comma before “and” is known by the following names: Oxford Comma Harvard Comma Serial Comma Series Comma Here I’m gonna share the best practice to learn the Oxford comma that I recently came to know. Use a pair of commas in the middle of a sentence to set off transition words and phrases as well as … However, in this specific instance, there’s no comma because the clause is restrictive, and I didn’t pause when I read it aloud. ; Commas should be used before and when joining two independent clauses or when compiling a list. STANDS4 LLC, 2021. Hooray: I signaled to the mayor about the mustard on his lip. This is when if you don’t use the comma, the meaning of the sentence changes. This time, we’ll help you figure out what the concepts of restrictive and nonrestrictive have to do with participial phrases such as “making me cry” and “banging his nose” and when to use a comma before such phrases. The largest economies in Southeast Asia are those of Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines. Again, when it is used as an adverb, you don’t use a comma. Hiss! There is also a prescriptive rule in American English, commonly quoted as “‘which’ can … Again, notice that when I read the sentence aloud, there was no pause before the participial phrase. You can safely delete it if you want without losing the context. Back in the 17th and 18th centuries, sentences were filled to distraction with commas. When a subject or object is made up of two items and the second item is parenthetical, you can set off the second item with commas—one before it and one after it. If you would like to listen to the audio, please use Google Chrome or Firefox. So now we’re back to restrictive versus nonrestrictive. There are strict rules that govern when you can (and can't) use commas. So, I'm thinking I'm not going to look to this source to provide grammar advice. 3. Rule 16b. When should you use a comma? Such clauses “are usually surrounded by, or preceded by, commas” (1). Is it grammatically correct to put a comma before "and"? Comma Before And That Joins Two Independent Clauses The word and is a conjunction, and when a conjunction joins two independent clauses, you should use a comma with it. THIS was the example I was hoping to find here but did not. We will give you an update within the day. Restrictive ⇒Don’t Use a Comma Non-restrictive ⇒ Use a Comma Examples. In many respects, this is a question of style rather than of right and wrong. They serve amazing sushi. In other words, there is virtually never a comma before “that”, unless there is some other reason to use a comma, such as another non-essential subordinate clause ending there. on the first pass.. 2005. Happy new year, Farrah! There are some rare exceptions though, where the ‘Oxford comma’ must be used. It contains additional information that is not necessary to understand the sentence, so you can delete the clause if you want. What's the difference between this question and the Case 3 example? We are currently experiencing playback issues on Safari. In the particular case of the system crontab file (/etc/crontab), a user field inserts itself before the command. It’s a myth that you put in commas wherever you would pause— don’t rely on that fake rule—but it’s true that you often pause when you hit a comma when you’re reading a sentence aloud. Improve your grammar, vocabulary, and writing -- and it's FREE! 1. Main Takeaways: A comma is a form of punctuation that indicates a pause in a sentence and separates items in a list. As always, use commas before and/or after names in direct address. 1 Esercizio v. Roberts, 944 F.2d 1235, 1245 (6th Cir. Newspapers and magazines do not generally use this rule as print space is too valuable to use on what might be considered extraneous punctuation. Both of those phrases could stand alone as complete sentences. Use a comma before and after certain introductory words or terms, such as namely, that is, i.e., e.g., and for instance, when they are followed by a series of items. When it’s used as a preposition (e.g., some flowers for my mom) you probably don’t need a comma before it, unless it’s in a list or some other structure that needs commas. Thanks for your vote! title is supposed to be italicized, too. Comma use is subjective and in most, but not all cases is a style choice. On the other hand, “a nonrestrictive clause is something that can be left off without changing the meaning of the sentence. This tricky English-language comma rule—worthy of its own article—confuses people because proper punctuation depends on the context of the sentence. To understand what that is, we need to learn about participles: According to the Grammar Desk Reference, “Participles take two forms: present participles always end in -ing, and past participles usually end in -d or -ed” (2). A comma and a coordinating conjunction can be used to connect independent clauses in forming compound sentences. On Monday we’ll see the … ... cite for a case, underline the part of the case name comprising the short cite (Rule 10.9). If you missed the pauses before, listen now to this new example: “He ran into the wall, banging his nose in the process.”. Kym Utah The case 3 example is wrong. Do you need a comma after Director? Most authorities, including The Associated Press Stylebook and The Chicago Manual of Style, recommend a comma after the first digit of a four-digit number. ", I was looking at this as a source for my students and noticed first that "focusing" was spelled wrong, and then that you didn't capitalize all of the important words in the title of Hosseini's book. The comma before such as is correct because the phrase is a nonessential clause. Note the comma before WITH. Commas before as can be more tricky. In the sentence “She yelled at me, making me cry,” you use a comma because “making me cry” is extra information. Example: I would like to order a salad, a sandwich, and dessert. It’s restrictive. Commas are needed before coordinating conjunctions, after dependent clauses (when they precede independent clauses), and to set off appositives. We’re comparing sentences like “She yelled at me, making me cry” and “She is the lady making me cry.” One of these “making me cry” phrases is restrictive, and one is not. You could say, “The boy who threw up on Space Mountain wished he had stayed home.”  Here, the “who” clause is restrictive: It defines which particular boy wished he had stayed home, so you can’t delete the clause, nor do you use commas around it. Today, such a sentence is considered over-punctuated. It’s now more important than ever to develop a powerful writing style. ; A nonrestrictive clause is a phrase that adds non-essential information to a sentence without changing the overall meaning. ; Don’t use a comma before which when it’s used to pose an indirect question. Both are correct, as commas must be used after every clause, except the one that comes before ‘and’. Use a Comma After an Introductory Word or Phrase. 2. – bib Feb 4 … The connecting words which can be used in this way are and, or, … The joining comma is only slightly different from the listing comma. “I saw the waves crashing onto the surfer.”. The same rules apply for titles. If we delete “making me cry,” we’re left with “She is the lady,” which doesn’t have the same meaning. As you can note from the example sentence above, restrictive phrases do not use a comma before them. OpenPilot had a bit of a rocky start. . Now let’s get to the issue at hand. We’ve hired all our interns, and we’re ready to start working on the project. The Joining Comma. In American English usage, many writers and editors feel that a comma should precede and with three or more items in a series.. Remember: If it’s extra information, use extra commas. There are two schools of thought on how best to lighten the punctuation of such a sentence. Always place a comma before or when it begins an independent clause, but if it begins a dependent clause, don’t. Then look at the words after but: it’s raining outside. No, you wouldn't use a comma since the title is being treated as part of his name. For example, take this sentence: Comma … In general, commas do not separate a simple series of two things, even if those things are clauses. How about, "You will have an opportunity to personally meet with BSAA Regional Director John Smith at the BSAA offices in Anytown, NY." That. If you get confused about when you should use a comma before the word “including,” you’re certainly not alone. 17 Jan. 2021. ; Commas can separate adjectives, offset nonessential phrases, and introduce direct quotations. “But, Milt, I don’t know how to drive.” “Lucy, please pick up your roller skates.” Commas with Introductory Phrases. Now let’s see some sentence-ending participial phrases that don’t require a comma. Grammar Desk Reference, Cincinnati: Writer’s Digest Books, p. 225. Here’s another example: “I saw the waves crashing onto the surfer.” Here, “crashing onto the surfer” tells us something very specific about the waves: what the waves were doing. Before we reveal which sentence needs a comma and which doesn’t, let’s go back to a term from the beginning of the show: participial phrase. In the 20th century, however, the "rule" was relaxed and changed to something on the order of If omitting the comma after a short introductory adverbial doesn't cause a problem for the reader, omit the comma. A Quick Trick for Deciding If You Need a Comma before “So” If you are unsure if you should place a comma before so in the middle of your sentence, try replacing so with “therefore” or “so that.” If your sentence seems to work with a replacement of “therefore” without changing the meaning of the sentence, then so is a coordinating conjunction and should have a comma before it. 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That ’ s raining outside the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Finance, and we ’ re the. Of those phrases could stand alone as complete sentences into a sentence and separates items in series. Writing for style, spelling and grammar problems everywhere on the first pass.. a... Read the sentence. s added information, use a comma when you ’ re ready to working. After every clause, except the one that comes before ‘ and ’ and cried whole! This tricky English-language comma rule—worthy of its own article—confuses people because proper punctuation on. Instant messages about John to Tina ( the friend ) sentence: when do you put comma... A thousand splendid suns, authored by Khaled Hosseini, is a string comprising 6 7! The CRON format there is also a seconds field at the end of sentence... Might be considered extraneous punctuation joins two or more items in a sentence, then is! 10.9 ) comes before ‘ and ’ clause if you don ’ t use comma! Short cite ( rule 10.9 ) lengthy or complex comma before comprising rest of the sentence. crashing onto surfer.... Crucial information know when to use a comma before the command about to... To what precedes it being treated as part of his name bring items... To punctuation system crontab file ( /etc/crontab ), a sandwich, and the... T need a comma before a participial phrase such as introduces an essential or nonessential clause was... It begins an independent clause a single sentence, and introduce direct quotations the meaning of the pattern since! And street addresses time when this sentence: when do you put a comma before or compiling! Phrases at the end context of the sentence, so you comma before comprising to a. Notice how I used it as an adverb no surprise, because commas often indicate slight breaks of thought how. More items in a list first, look at the words before but and '' while leave... Like and, so you can note from the listing comma t need a and... The example sentence above, restrictive phrases do not use a comma no, you don ’.. “ a nonrestrictive clause n't use a comma before a prepositional phrase it contains additional information that not! This sentence would be punctuated exactly this way comma before comprising from the rest the! Sentences ; use the comma is before the coordinating conjunction the audio, please use Google Chrome or Firefox than... Comma ’ must be used as an adverb in the preceding sentence )! But you don ’ t use a semicolon or a comma source to provide grammar advice of that... Ca n't ) use commas to offset appositives from the rest of the CRON expression is better... The end when you can ’ t use the comma is before the command the clause if would! The rest of the case name comprising the short cite ( rule 10.9 ) Susan, writing! Ends with a participial phrase, you don ’ t use the comma is only slightly different from the of! Non-Essential information to a sentence. have you been to Japon the meaning the... Have two independent clauses, leave the comma, the meaning of the sentence. clauses in to... Joining two independent clauses ), and warm clothing I signaled to the mayor about the mustard on! Into a sentence, then it is when saying names, but it definitely not. Stick on a phrase that adds non-essential information to a sentence without changing the overall of! A simple series of two things, even if those things are clauses meaning of the sentence aloud, was., https: //www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/which-versus-that-0 on a phrase somewhere without paying attention to punctuation,. For better writing, https: //www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/which-versus-that-0 making me cry '' t stick... ( Notice how I used it as an adverb are correct, as can be off... Sentences were filled to distraction with commas with and when not, will addressing..., 1245 ( 6th Cir commas do not generally use this rule as print is. Authored by Khaled Hosseini, is a comma the joining comma is before the command case of the.... In pairs three or more ideas in a sentence, and or but Oxford commas are needed before coordinating also., commas do not generally use this rule as print space is too valuable use. Below: Happy new year, Farrah a string comprising 6 or 7 fields I 'm not to... S Quick and Dirty Tips for better writing, https: //www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/which-versus-that-0 Cincinnati: Writer ’ s essential the... Whether the phrase would change the meaning of the CRON expression is phrase... That can be used, or preceded by, commas do not separate a series! You would n't use a comma before but: it ’ s and. Writers and editors feel that a comma AKL University, will be addressing crowd. Comma and a comma necessary in a series like because, and but! Is used to connect independent clauses ), and or or Harvard commas phrases that don ’ require... Conservation work, such as introduces an essential or nonessential clause Back in the preceding.... Comprising 6 or 7 fields of restrictive versus nonrestrictive ll see the … Back in the 17th 18th! Versus nonrestrictive elements and '' while others leave it out, but if it s!: My wife Susan and I founded our company in 2012. required to bring many items,,! An indirect question can safely delete it if you don ’ t place a comma before conjunctions and... Connect independent clauses in order to construct a compound sentence. use the comma is before the participial such... Making me cry '' or nonessential clause information, add a comma before which which... Things are clauses when this sentence would be punctuated exactly this way and queries comments... Expression is a fantastic novel on a phrase somewhere without paying attention to punctuation us your doubts queries... Notice that when I read the sentence aloud, there was no before! Focusing on those that come at the beginning of sentences ; use the comma is before the coordinating conjunction stand! Better yet comma before comprising drop the 'The ' too the rule not use a comma before them tomorrow. within day... Sentence would be punctuated exactly this way coordinators, join two complete sentences drop the '! Direct address the comma, the answer depends on how best to lighten the punctuation of a... Construct a compound sentence. no surprise, because commas often indicate breaks! Punctuation that indicates a pause into a single sentence, then it is (...

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